Enhancing natural pest and disease control among rural smallholder farmers in Salima District, Malawi

Introduction

Malawi has an agro-based economy with over 85% of the rural population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming. Due to the effects of climate change, the country is prone to natural hazards such as floods, droughts and pro-longed dry spells triggering pest and disease occurrences in farmers’ fields. This forces the majority of the farmers to use chemical methods of pest and disease control which may be harmful to the environment.

My innovation seeks to enhance natural pest and disease control methods among smallholder farmers in Salima District, Malawi. I am a 35-year-old environmental and economic sustainability advocate in agriculture. I have a Master of Science in Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development from the University College Dublin (UCD) in Ireland (2015). I run an integrated crop and livestock farm where I use natural pest and disease control methods on crops.

Through participation in the IUPAC International Congress and the Next Generation Agri Summit, I will engage in public awareness and technology transfer of natural pest and disease control methods among rural smallholder farmers around my farm. The farm will act as a ‘model’ for the surrounding 5 villages which have over 3000 smallholders. These farmers mostly use chemicals to control pests and diseases. Upon participatory learning at the farm it is envisaged that 500 smallholder farmers will try out and adopt natural pest and disease control methods in their own farms each rainy season. In the long run we hope to scale out to a wider geographical reach and contribute to policy change.

What is natural pest and disease control?

This innovation will make smallholder farmers around my farm appreciate the fact that pests and diseases are part of the natural environmental system. In this system there is a balance between predators and pests. This is nature’s way of controlling populations. The creatures that we call pests and the organisms that cause disease only become ‘pest and diseases’ when their activities start to damage crops and affect yields. If the natural environmental system is unbalanced then one population can become dominant because it is not being preyed upon. The aim of natural control is to restore a balance between pest and predator and to keep pests and diseases down to an acceptable level. The aim is not to eradicate them altogether, as they also have a role to play in the natural system. Once a pest or disease has started to attack a crop, the damage cannot be repaired and control becomes increasingly difficult. The farmers will be taught techniques that avoid or prevent pest and disease attack in the first place.

A

Why is natural control preferable to chemical control?

Natural pest control methods are preferable to chemical control methods for the following reasons:

1. Cost: Using natural pest and disease control is often cheaper than applying chemical pesticides because natural methods do not require buying expensive materials from the outside. Products and materials which are already in the home and around the farm are most often used.

2. Safety for people: There is much concern over the dangers of chemical products. They may be misused because the instructions are not written in the language spoken by the person using the product. There have been reports of people suffering from severe skin rashes and headaches as a result of using chemical pesticides. There are an estimated one million cases of poisoning by pesticides each year around the world and many of these are in developing countries such as Malawi where chemical pesticides, which are banned in Europe or the USA, are still available

3. Safety for the environment: Pests are often controlled with man-made chemicals which can have harmful effects, for example: (i) artificial chemicals kill useful insects which eat pests (ii) artificial chemicals can stay in the environment and in the bodies of animals causing problems for many years (iii) insect pests can very quickly, over a few breeding cycles, become resistant to artificial products and can no longer be controlled.

Natural pest and disease control methods: Knowing the problem

Before taking action to control pests and diseases it is very important to make sure that the problem is correctly identified. Only then can you hope to succeed. Knowledge of pests and diseases will help you to decide whether the problem is caused by a pest, a disease, a mineral deficiency in the soil or an environmental factor. A good identification book may help with this. Proper identification should be the first step in controlling the problem and, more importantly, in preventing it from happening again. At the model farm the following natural pest and disease control practices are currently taking place. These will be imparted to the surrounding communities.

Maintaining a healthy soil: A soil managed using organic methods will give plants a balanced food supply. Plants which are fed well, like people, will be much more be resistant to pests and diseases.

Planting resistant varieties and utilizing genetic diversity: Within a single crop there can be many differences in terms of resistance to diseases. For instance, traditional varieties have been grown and selected over many centuries to meet the requirements of the farmer and are still saved locally.

Crop rotation: Avoidgrowing the same crops in the same site year after year to avoid a buildup of pests and diseases in the soil which may be transferred from one cropping season to the next.

Good hygiene: If infected plant material, live or dead, is left lying around, pests and diseases can be passed on to future crops. Debris should be cleared up and disposed of.

Soil tillage and Soil PH: Many pests spend part of their lives as larvae or pupae in the soil. Ploughing or digging when the soil is dry can reveal the pest and they will dry out and die in the sun, or they can be picked off the ground by hand or birds or other predators. The pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a soil can affect some diseases. Changing the pH can reduce the problem. For example, potato scab is less severe in more acid (pH below 7) soils. A layer of grass mowings added to the bottom of the potato trenches at planting time will make the soil more acidic and reduce the disease.

Companion planting: Companion planting means growing certain plants to protect other plants from pests or diseases. This may be because the pest is deterred by the companion plant, or because it is attracted to the companion plant rather than the crop. For example, many pests avoid garlic, so this can be used very effectively for companion planting with most crops.

Plants to attract predators and parasites: Similar to companion planting, which seeks to deter pests from the main crop, attractant plants can be grown to attract predatory insects.

Areas of natural habitat: Bushes and trees are a home for many useful insects and birds. Areas of natural habitat can be left around the edges of fields where crops are grown. If these areas are destroyed then there is likely to be an imbalance between the populations of predator and pest.

Specific plants to attract beneficial insects: There are many plants that can be grown to attract natural predators and parasites which will help to keep down pests and diseases. Flowers such as marigolds (Tagetes), mint (Mentha), sunflower (Helianthus annus), sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea) as well as local legumes are useful attractant plants.

Barriers: Barriers are physical structures put in place to prevent a pest from reaching a plant. They keep pests away from a plant but do not kill them.

Pheromone traps: Pheromone is the sexual attractant produced by some female insects. If a trap is baited with this it will attract the male insects into the trap from which they cannot escape. Pheromone traps alone can reduce pest damage and also give an indication of pest populations.

Hand picking and squashing: In some cases, it may be possible to pick pests directly off the crops.

Biological control: This often involves introducing a creature or organism, which is known to be predatory, to an area with the aim that it will control the population of the pest.

Natural pesticides: If pests and diseases cannot be prevented or controlled by cultural and physical means, it may be necessary to use natural pesticides. Examples include a solution made from marigold using water and soap.

Brian Kachisa, Malawi

28 comments

  1. This is a great innovation to control the pest and diseases on crops. An Environmental Health Officer am in support of this because as you have said it is enviromental friendly, so its a good thing. And sice in Malawi We depend on farming with the low no cost involved here it is good. Great idea.

    Like

  2. Indeed the best way of dealing with pests and diseases isn’t the use of chemicals rather the use of natural methods. Histroy has proven that chemicals have been so detrimental to our environment be it on short or long term basis. This has therefore been the major reason why many farmers have failed to achieve desired results from their farming. As one on the smallholder farmers in Salima am so eager to learn on what this model farm is about to introduce. It is obvious that through this arrangement the targetted farmers with start to realize bumper harvests from the little or minimal effort put on their farms.

    Bravo to Mr Kachisa for this brilliant idea.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Natural pests and disease control seems to be of above par considering the economy of our country and among other things safety for both environment and people are just make it to be on the right track because thats what we need.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Most of the pest sides are packed in either plastic bottles or plastic papers…disposing of this plastic materials another huge challenge …..natural pest and disease control seems to be answer to it

    Like

  5. It is a very creative and out of the box kind of back to basics approach. However an investment in mindset changing activities so that the approach isn’t viewed as inferior to the chemical controlling of pesticides.

    I like it very much.

    Like

  6. I am dazzled with this new ways to eradicate pesticides naturally…cant wait to get a full update on that model farm you are working in..keep up the good work!!

    Like

  7. Finally; someone seems to have some answers to the puzzle; addressing the cost as well as both, People and Environmental safety issues.

    Malawi and Africa as a whole would surely benefit from this. Just what we need. Great Innovation Mr Kachisa!

    Like

  8. This is a good move. More importantly crops that have been grown without the use of pesticides retain their natural taste and do not affect the consumer health wise.
    Kudos Brian Kachisa.

    Like

  9. This technology modeled on simple and sustainable approaches offers much hope for smallholder farmers. It will help reduce funds committed to emergency control of pests like the Fall Army Worm which has been a menace during the last couple of years devouring maize fields. Bravo Brian!

    Like

  10. Nice piece. Looking forward to the mass adoption of these practices by smallholder farmers and the eventual impact that they will have on crop productivity.

    Like

  11. Briiliant concept …more merits than demerits. This Biological Control method would ultimately accomplish the pest control agenda amongst the smallholder farmers.

    Like

  12. Great article. Just a little concern: Malawians, we write great papers, just like this one. Other countries borrow them and implement them. As for us, we shelf them to gather dust. I would recommend that we walk the talk on this.GMOs will kill us slowly.

    Like

  13. This is a very good article.I like your approach of having your own farm as a model farm. It is also important to solicit ideas from farmers in how they are handling pest and diseases through local means. These approaches may be evaluated together with the farmers on your model fam

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s