Drone technology to tackle pests in Botswana

After my graduation, I took up a voluntary opportunity with a national grain merchant where I was the understudy to the organizations’ agronomist. This gave me the opportunity to be appointed as an agronomist working for the biggest commercial agriculture and wildlife safari tourism hub in my country.

In Pandamatenga village about 2700 hectares of land has been allocated to small scale farmers in the local community. A further 45 000 hectares has been allocated to commercial farmers for cultivation. All these farmers practice rain fed, arable farming and grow common crops such as maize, sorghum, and beans. There are a few trials with wheat and chickpeas.

It is essential to take into consideration that Botswana, being located in the Sub-Saharan desert, has some of the harshest climatic conditions for a farmer to thrive in but still remain resilient. The area has high temperatures, unreliable rainfall and in addition, high infestation of pests. One of these are Quelea birds, which migrate between Zimbabwe and Botswana. These pests end up lowering the yield of sorghum, a staple crop of Botswana.

In addition to agriculture, Pandamatenga village has value as a tourist destination because the surrounding wild forest land harbours a large population of diverse wild animals such as elephants, lions, buffalos. Eland antelopes are another pest intruding on fields where sugar bean are grown. Antelope are particularly fond of sugar bean. Last year alone (2018) over 10 000 ha of sorghum fields were damaged by these migratory birds and about over 250 ha of bean fields where damaged by foraging ntelope .

Through my extension services work I have developed a passion and motivation to promote the idea of integrating drone technology to sustainable manage the Quelea and Eland Antelope intrusions. It is my idea that the most appropriate drones to use would be ones that utilize solar energy as Botswana has lots of sunshine. This idea will not only benefit the crop protection aspect of agriculture in Pandamatenga, but also can be used for soil fertility, land restoration, managing  anti-poaching activities and wild fire prevention. It will have an agro-ecological benefit as it takes into account wild animals, the wild forest and the farming lands.

Source: Botswana Agricultural Marketing Board Gallery

Before expounding on this idea, perhaps it is important to note the previous methods that we tried to apply in our extension office that had unsatisfactory  outcomes. As a biological form of control we tried using Falcons to chase away the Quelea. It worked in the early stages but it’s effectiveness declined as time passed. We used blasting every now and then to let the noise scare both the Quelea birds and Eland Antelopes away. However, given the unpredictable nature of rains in Botswana it has proved ineffectual to blast because the atmosphere remains damp. Therefore drone technology seems to be a viable alternative, much more precise and progressive. Although this is still a conceptual idea, I believe the IUPAC 2019 conference will offer me the opportunity to sharpen this. How I envisioned this idea being applied was through the following steps:

Educating farmers and all the relevant stakeholders on Drone technology to raise awareness: given that drone technology is a new idea to Botswana, it is inevitable that hosting farmer workshops to teach them about drone technology and the possibilities of utilizing them in the Agricultural sector would shift the mindset of farmers towards being precision orientated. Furthermore, capacity building activities could be imparted on farmers, especially young farmers in rural communities, so that they gain the technical know-how of operating such technology. Government officials and other legislating bodies could come together with drone tech specialists in these awareness campaigns so that we teach local communities on licensing when using drones for farms especially if the drones will be used with avicides.dea, define its direction and network with expert peers and mentors that have been exposed to precision farming with their diverse background.

Solicit the farmers association in Pandamatenga to collaborate and pledge to buy a drone for trials and demonstrations: Through my extension work and the advisory services I offer farmers in my network, I have realized that they have the ‘common purpose’ approach to tackling local community issues. Therefore I would like to utilize that aspect, and perhaps they pledge and seek a common ground to procure at least one drone in order to demonstrate this idea. In this way not only will it be an investment to the association but if it proves successful then it will attract relevant stakeholders such as the Ministry of Agriculture to pledge their support to the cause or even this platform to attend the IUPAC 2019 conference. This will enable me to network with drone tech specialists who share the same sentiment of actualizing drones in Agriculture especially in a developing country thus hone the practicalities of the idea.

If successfully procured, the drone is expected to do the following: The farm of demonstration will first be mapped into the drone so that it can precisely fly towards the nest where the Quelea birds harbour themselves. As to what type of avicides will be used to spray their nest remains debatable, however, upon my interviews with various farmers concerning this idea, it would be more beneficial to them if a 10 litre drone that can spray 7 litres per hectare of an FAO-approved and government tried and tested avicide. For Eland Antelopes the farm manager or site manager will be able to identify where the antelopes harbour themselves in the farm and via transceivers or mobile phone on site then instruct the drone operator to fly the drone towards them which will be automatically scared by the noise of drones .

Other benefits of this is that the drone can use aerial pictures to identify areas that are waterlogged in the farms. As already stated Botswana experiences high temperatures. So, for the most part, it would be sustainable to use this to our advantage by incorporating solar energy into the drone, given that Pandamatenga is a village and power cuts are prone to occur and farm operations do not cease on account of that. This idea will not only benefit farmers in my area, but it will also attract young people to consider playing a role in Agriculture especially millennials as they are thought to be more tech savvy therefore creating jobs for drone specialist enthusiasts and techpreneurs who wish to diversify their field. It will boost yields, resulting in a closer step to food security for Botswana.

Antonette Ncube, Botswana

Feature photograph courtesy of Drone KingBw


  1. This is very insightful. The proposed approach of creating awareness on about the potentials of drone technology
    among farmers and subsequent procurement of dranes will address the challenge of low yield from the invasion of Qualea birds and other related parasites.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Dear Antoinette,
    The project concept on drones for solving the challenges of pests is smart and very feasible and has the potential to tackle numerous challenges including the issue of youth disinterest in Agriculture sector. Aerial photos and mapping are also important aspects of the concept and I see a multiplier effect spreading to other sectors on health,education etc.


  3. Great idea. The infusion of drones into agriculture will spark a great deal of interest from the youth. Moreover, your efforts towards tackling challenges faced by farmers in Pandamatenga are commendable.


  4. It’s always great to see the youth coming up with such great ideas like yours. This is what the Agricultural industry in Botswana and the world needs. Put the drones to work and head on to a food secure world.


  5. This is an innovative idea, it’s infusion in the agronomy industry especially in Pandamatega area. On it’s own it an opportunity for all stakeholders to utilize and transform the arable agriculture of Botswana.


  6. Looks promising. Trust it will develope further and be implemented. Cause harnessing technology is the way forward in any industry.


  7. Dear Antoinette
    Please keep up the good work that you are doing we wish to have more of that good farming


  8. GREAT STUFF DEAR, this innovate idea is worth a try, the challenge in your area of study is really serious, and needs interventions like this..


  9. This sounds like a good idea that can be of great help to farmers in Botswana. I really hope this project succeeds and goes on further. Good luck and keep up the good work Antonette


  10. Having done some work in Botswana in Local Economic Development (LED) I have come to understand the interplay between agriculture, wildlife& conservation, land resource use and of tourism to the various local economies. The dynamics is not a fluid one needs strong multisectorial negotiations skills and viable business cases to build win win development for the various communities.
    Introducing technology for the mutual benefits of the 3 sectors improve the productivity of these rural farmers to improve their socio-economic development is laudable.
    I see a great potential in this project as the project design has included all aspects for proper LED development. The expected outcomes are clear and it is good for replication in other parts of the country


  11. Wow!! Brilliant, this is quite innovative and will benefit our agriculture sector soo much. It should be adopted as soon as yesterday, this is the much needed change we need to improve and innovate our agricultural sector.

    Profound write up Ms Ncube.


  12. This technology if adopted by the local farmers will bring the much needed integration of modern technologies in our farming system and in turn improve the yields. Its high time we move from traditional ways of doing things and embrace the new ways of doing things. I support the good work Antonnete Ncube


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