Integrated fusarium wilt management (IFWM) in cashew crop

Cashew is an important cash and nutritious tree crop in the world. Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum has deteriorated the production of cashew in Tanzania. Management of fusarium wilt disease has remained a nightmare in the world with a single approach proven inadequate to solve the problem. Therefore, an integrated management approach of using synthetic fungicides, soil amendment and non-host intercrops will possibly solve the problem. Synthetic fungicides will manage the infested cashew tree returning to its normal state, while the application of soil amendment like lime and non-host intercrops will provide a non-conducive environment for growth and reproduction of the fusarium pathogens and environmental conservation respectively. Through the application of these three approaches the management of fusarium wilt disease in cashew will be sustainable and economical viable to stakeholders.

This integrated management approach is total beneficial to cashew stakeholders in Tanzania and worldwide. Example farmers will be able to manage the disease, then increase the production and income. Also the developed approach will be useful to other host plant of Fusarium oxysporum such as Cotton, Guava, Banana and others.


  • The approach will be conducted into three different sites.
  • Integrated Fusarium wilt Management (IFWM) will be conducted for three consecutive years. The fields will be divided into three blocks, First block subjected to one year application, second block subjected to two years application and third block subjected to three years application.
  • In each block, an integrated approach of synthetic fungicides, soil amendment and non-host intercrop will be applied. Lime will be applied on the soil under the cashew canopy with a radius of three meter from the trunk, then followed by the application of systemic fungicides on the same area applied with lime and on the foliar part of the cashew tree. The application of lime and fungicides will be thrice a year. Non-host intercrop will be planted in the interow space between cashew trees once per year during a rain season as rainfed cropping.
  • Before the application of Integrated Fusarium wilt management a baseline data will be collected which will be soil physiochemical data and disease severity data. Then after the application of IFWM approach, the soil physiochemical data, disease severity data and plant rejuvenation data will be collected to verify the efficacy of the approaches.

Stakeholders in this project are the local government authorities (LGO’s) and Tanzania Agriculture Research Institute (TARI)-Naliendele.


  • Farmers-are primary beneficiaries who will adopt the technology develop, cure and prevent their cashew fields from Fusarium wilt disease and ultimately increase their cashew production and household income.
  • Researchers– will increase the knowledge base on the management of fusarium wilt disease in cashew
  • Synthetic fungicide and lime manufacturers: these will benefit from supplying their recommended products to farmers.

Possible outcomes

  • Integrated Fusarium Wilt Management (IFWM) approach will control and prevent the fusarium wilt disease on cashew tree.
  • Increase easy and fast rejuvenation of cashew tree
  • Increase in cashew production and productivity

Social-economic Impact

  • Farmers and research will increase the knowledge on the management of the fusarium wilt disease in cashew
  • More farmers will have self-employment through cashew farming
  • Farmers will increase their production and productivity, hence increase their household income and ultimately reduce and eradicate poverty.
  • Synthetic fungicides and lime manufacturers will employ more laborers for the manufacturing of their products.


The desire to help local Tanzanian cashew famers to combat the problem of fusarium wilt disease which reduces their production and productivity is the one motivated me to try to work out in this call.

I will personal increase my knowledge during the implementation of the project idea and also my compatriot local farmers will benefit by managing their cashew tree from fusarium wilt disease and ultimately increase their production and productivity.


  1. Describe the experience of the said approaches as they have been applied elsewhere – how effective they have been. Describe a bit the history of the disease in the country.

    Current severity of the diseases and likelihood of reduction after intervention in terms of % need to be clear to the reviewer/proposal

    Sites where the experiment will be carried out: Is it on-station or on-farm. I would suggest that on-farm work would be better particularly in most affected areas.

    Beneficairies: quantify – how many farmers (direct/indirect, men/women. By the way researchers are not beneficiaries.

    Outcome: adoption rate, % reduction in the disease, % increase in productivity/production

    Otherwise the intervention is of socio-economic importance.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks, all comments received with regards for during the writing of the whole proposal as this was just a concept note.


  2. Its a great approach for management options, I have few comments;
    i) Is the cashew tree nutritious or its product? I thought you could give more information on the product with respected to the edible part of the plant.

    ii) When writing your introduction I suggest to start from broad perspective to narrow; thats means global to country/region level. Here more data (production, productivity, market, etc) are required with their citation. State current control method and its ineffectiveness with respect to environmental effects.

    iii) % level of reduction caused by this diseases should be well stated with the source of information
    iv) More details on methodology are required; state the way how farmers will be engaged on this project but also approximate numbers of beneficiaries per category


    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks Mr. Binagwa
      Comments received with regards, however it was a concept note thats why a deep informations are not available.
      Regarding nutritiousness of cashew; the statement refered to cashew as a crop whereby from its produces (Cashew apple) to products (Cashew Juice, Butter, and processed Kernels) are nutritious to human.


  3. It is great idea, however clear justification of the effectiveness of the IPM method need to be shown where has it worked before and how effective it is. Also in the background it is important to quantify the seriousness of the disease by showing the % incidence, severity, number of cashew region or district affected, % nut loss due to disease and what are currently used methods used to manage the disease.

    In the methodology include also the activity of first characterizing the pathogen to know which exactly Strain/Race of Fusarium is prevalent in the country or affected districts, this is related to the choice of correct of fungicide


  4. The idea is good and greatly contributes to SDGs 1 and 2) and AU Agenda 2023.
    If accepted for a further step, incorporation of the above comments by Dr. Rwezaula, Papias et al are inevitable

    Liked by 1 person

  5. This is a good idea either some comments I think should also be included
    1. Para 1: Indicate the single technology that has been used to combat Fusarium wilt that could not work properly
    2. Para 2: I propose this to be as a case study for other crops affected by Fusarium wilt because Fusarium wilt is affecting many crops
    3. Methodology: I propose to include Study on the races available and the relationship with other crops apart from Cashew using Biotechnology?
    4. Last Para on Motivation: I think this is not only for you BUT for researchers, Extension and other stakeholders as a whole

    Liked by 1 person

  6. This study is important at moment for development of cashew industry not only for Tanzania but for the entire world.
    Issues to be considered:
    Briefly explain the history and spread of the disease in Tanzania and if possible in other cashew growing countries in terms of extent, rate and distribution including % of trees affected or farms or households and estimation on its effect on yield and production of cashew as well as income and economy of the country.
    Also, include farmers reactions or coping strategies so far.
    Then briefly describes the possible control measures worked some where.

    Methodology: Since this is societal or global issue indicate potential partners and/or collaborators of this project along the cashew value chain. Also, site characterisation should be clearly defined in terms of areas affected, farming systems, agroecological zones, community typology etc. – i.e., site selection criteria.

    In general this research proposal is viable in generating control measures of Cashew Fusarium Wilt for cashew growing countries

    Liked by 1 person

  7. It’s good idea, as long as it is going to help cashew growers particularly smallholder farmers! Fusarium wilt is devastating disease that need to be addressed immediately to avoid yield loss that might cause disasterous impacts to both farmer and the government.


  8. The Idea is brilliant on my side. But i would like to know those plant species which are non-host to fusarium and their complementarity to Cashew plants and it’s growing environment at large since may be found useful but doesn’t match to cashew growing fields (Cashew fields (soils) has lower PH, and prefers moderate to higher temperature etc, are these non-host crops tolerant to these conditions as well? ). On choosing those non-host crops think on their relevance to the cashew growing areas communities. Think of the possible socio-economic concequences of them and some challenges that can be brought since if the technology will be adopted, these crops will be one of the major crops in a country not only to cashew growers communities.

    Support your project with some relevant projects undertaken elsewhere successfully.

    Otherwise on my side i think the concept is very innovative and practicable. Wishing you all the best.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks Mr. Muhajir Mussa, comments received with regards,
      Regarding no-host plant, the selection of the non-host plant followed the Agroecological patterns of the study area so that they remains economically potential to farmers. The selected ones are Cassava and Yams which are dominantly cultivated.


  9. Congrats Mr Mbasa for the idea however I have some few observations.
    I think you have to describe in a persuasive manner the nature of the problem and the relative importance, include available information on the nature, magnitude and causes of the problem or in other way what previous studies has been done on the same problem/why the problem has not been tackled yet. You need also to include in the introduction the economic importance of cashew, suppose the problem is not solved what could be the impact.


  10. Thanks Mr. Madeni,
    Your comments received with regards.
    They will be available during whole proposal writing and submission


  11. Cashew is the most important cash crop in Tanzania and is mainly grown by resource constrained farmers in Tanzania. Successful management of fusarium wilt and any other diseases will lead to increased production and thus reduced poverty in the coastal lowlands, especially in southern parts of the country. I am optimistic that the proposed approaches can reduce the pressure of this disease.


  12. Thank Mr. Mbasa for the landsliding concept in cashew industry, there is no doubt that problem is acute severe. I agreed with all the comments stated above,especially that Muhajir’s as the nature of disease originated from environmental/soil variations. Therefore , we expect more efforts on screening soils which will lead you to understand soil /agronomic amendment practices probably something went wrong with our farming systems or impact of climate change.


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