Integrated strategies and strengthening knowledge transfer in management and control of fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Cercospora fruit spot disease (Cercospora angolensis) in citrus in Zambia

In Zambia, the proportion of smallholder households growing and selling citrus fruits has been declining over the past years. For instance, during the period 2012 to 2016 there was a drop in production levels from 4,400 to 3,786 tonnes (FAOSTA, 2017), resulting in a reduction of 614 tonnes over a period of four years. The decline has been attributed to several factors such as pests incidences, production high costs including the negatives effects of climate change.

As a Senior Agricultural Research Officer, I have observed how pests like fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) an Cerospora fruit spot disease (Cerospora angolensis) have limited citrus production in Zambia. These two pests have the potential to cause 30 to 100% yield loss with improper management. Fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spot disease are prevalent in all growing areas and have been a constant threat to citrus production in Zambia. However, a number of control methods are being used worldwide. The array of control measures include the use of single applications of inorganic pesticides, bio-pesticides, organic pesticides, mixtures of pesticides, cultural practices and host plant resistance. In my community and Zambia at large, inorganic pesticides are the most used control measures. This is so because inorganic pesticides are readily available and effective to control pests of citrus except for their negative impact on non-target organisms (Carrolet al., 2009).

Despite the economic threats and production damage caused by fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spot disease, there has been limited scientifically justified and stream lined research done to sustainably control these pests in Zambia.  The damage on citrus fruits has led to quarantine restrictions and phytosanitary measures which are imposed by developed countries on exports. This has led to socio-economic losses of income, jobs and nutritional security in the country. Through my work, I have witnessed at farm level, farmers using high concentrations of pesticides to control pest out breaks. I have equally, observed the lack of knowledge among the farmers on integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Therefore, to change the current situation, I intend to conduct a project with the aim to reduce dependence on inorganic pesticides in citrus production. The project will involve introduction of bio-control and organic pesticides in already existing spray programs. Also, a sustainable control measure/s to manage fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spot disease will be established.

The objectives are; (i) to document information and empower farmers on IPM in fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spot disease (ii) sensitize farmers and to transfer knowledge on benefits of using bio-control and organic pesticides (iii) educate farmers on correct use and disposal of obsolute pesticides (iv) to determine the most suitable IPM control strategy in fruit production.

The project will be conducted at Copperbelt Research Station in Kalulushi district, on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia where I am currently working. The proposed time frame for this project will be three years. During this period, the following activities will be done to control pests and improve fruit production; establish field and greenhouse trials, set up on-farm demonstration plots, raise and distribute disease-free seedlings, and conduct trainings on IPM strategies to control these pests. Knowledge transfer will be implemented through distribution of catalogues on pests of citrus fruits, radio and television programs and participatory meetings. Equally, farmers will be educated on pest and disease identification, best control methods, proper use of chemicals to safe guard the environment. Furthermore, through the project, a number of stakeholders will be engaged. These include; the smallholder farmers who are primary beneficiaries of the project, agro-dealers, researchers, extension services, agricultural processing industries and consumers.

The outcomes of this project will lead to sustainable management of fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spot disease in citrus production typical to the Zambian setup including improved knowledge and skills on suitable IPM strategies. Consequently, this project will contribute to upgraded fruit production, improved fruit nutrition value, job creation and increased income generation activities. 

My passion is to see pests such as fruit fly and Cercospora fruit spotdisease which challenge citrus fruit production mitigated for increased local production and reduced importation of fruits in Zambia. Furthermore, through this project, I would love to see improved fruit production contribute to reduced malnutrition levels which stands at 40% with 15% of the under five children extremely malnourish in my country.

On a special note, I look forward to learning new technical skills, improve my scientific communication skills and build global networks. I believe this will help me stay up-to-date and collaborate with other scientists under the IUPAC Next Generation Programs. My appeal is that, IUPAC Next Generation Program organizers should continue offering this unique life changing platform to young crop protection future leaders.

Chilipa Lorraine, Zambia


  1. The research article is a perfect one in such a way that it will help farmers know or rather understand the kind of disease attacking their fruits making them realize that what is happening to their fruits is not natural, thereafter knowing the right medication to use.


  2. Most of us we have been ignorant on this issue of growing oranges ,these fruits are important because they improve economic systems in family ,community and large so the knowledge which has revealed this must be implemented., in short this program should not be left out as it will improve on how we can grow fruits in health manner.


  3. This program is important because it is giving us how to deal with bacterias which has been a challenge in past years till now on how we can know proper measures of controlling orange fruits as a farmer I thought of giving up in growing orange fruits due to lack of knowledge especially on diseases.


  4. This research paper carries heavy ideas or cooked information because a number of people we have suffered from various diseases because we just buy fruits and eat especially young children in this case orange fruit ,so to save our souls worldwide implement this program also in rural areas we are ignorant about this so please we need to be educated,


  5. This programme will help reduce lack of vitamins through high production of fruit after carrying out the project, forex will increase through high production, poverty will be reduced because farmers will be able to use correct dose and application methods increasing fruit production in our community. If farmers stop farming oranges then no income generated meaning they will not be able to take their children to school, so as a teacher I feel this program will help farmers generate money to take their children to school.


  6. This research program must be implemented because it is shading proper knowledge which is enlightening the farmers who are commercial and substances on how they can have full knowledge on pests and bacteria controlling which will help them to have improvement in orange yielding and improve the market system with good profit


  7. As an environmental health officer, I agree that the environment needs to be safe guarded with less pollution from the pesticides being used by farmers as they mitigate the challenges in citrus production. we also advise mother in particular to use fruits such as oranges as source of vitamins. in really interested to see the birth of this work bring out the solutions and increase the fruit numbers in the country.


  8. Fruit production is certainly a viable industry in Zambia and can ultimately enhance food/nutrition security which is the need of the hour. Fruitflies and cercospora have indeed devastated fruit production and therefore the need to undertake this research work cannot be overemphasized


  9. Interesting piece of work this is information needed to be passed on to our stakeholder, farmers, consumers that as Zambian we can produce good fruit to supply in these supermarkets if which the fruits can even be sold at a very cheap,/ affordable price


  10. Control and management of citrus pests and diseases is crucial if we have to increase production and this work should be supported


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